Evolution and genomes

Genomes are by nature highly polymorphic. The results from genomics have highlighted the natural variability between genomes and their component parts at different levels: cells, organisms, populations and species. This variability shows the clear evolutionary impact of the dynamic nature of the various genetic elements, and many projects aim to provide new knowledge about the underlying processes.

We focus on the study of the evolution of the genome through intra- and interactions: horizontal transfers, polyploidization, the evolution of mobile genetic elements, genetic conflicts, evolutionary genetics and molecular evolution. To answer the questions raised, we develop and combine a wide range of approaches that are both traditional and very recent in molecular, genomic and transcriptomic genetics, bioinformatics, mathematics and experimental evolution.

Two important new approaches are the study of horizontal transfers and of symbiotic interactions. Another will be the expansion of our activities to include transversal projects linked to applied research by studying the genomes of edible insects and by assessing the potential risks linked to the use of insects in pest control.

Team Leaders: Nicolas Pollet and Aurélie Hua-Van

Keywords:

Symbiotic and holobiotic interactions

Processes of genome evolution

Selfish genetic elements

Gene network modelling

Molecular evolution

Genotype-phenotype interactions

Topics:

  • Dynamics and evolution of the genomes: Impact of selfish genes (Transposable elements, meiotic distorter) and polyploidization.
  • Interactions within genomes, especially at the scale of gene networks which are part of phenotype realisation or help developmental or physiological or of the cellular cycle processes to be set up.
  • Genetic and epigenetic factors in evolution and adaptation.

Approaches:

Compared biology, Genomics, Population genetics, Theoretical biology. All use the tools of molecular biology and of bio-informatics, and lead to the making of scripts and specific tools for research/sequence analysis (molecular evolution, phylogeny) and for high throuput data treatment.

Team members

  • Nicolas Pollet, CNRS researcher.
  • Aurélie Hua-Van, Associate Professor at the University Paris-Saclay.
  • Pierre Capy, Professor at the University Paris-Saclay (Orsay)
  • Jean-Luc Da Lage, CNRS researcher.
  • Arnaud Le Rouzic, CNRS researcher.
  • Jonathan Filée, CNRS researcher.
  • Clément Gilbert, CNRS researcher.
  • Jean David, Emeritus CNRS Research Director.
  • Catherine Montchamp-Moreau, Emeritus CNRS Research Director.
  • David Ogereau , CNRS Engineer.
  • Emilie Robillard, CNRS Engineer.
  • Isabelle Clavereau, CNRS Assistant engineer.
  • Laurent Legendre, CNRS Engineer.
  • Magalie Bonneau, CNRS Technician.
  • Joseph Guilliet, PhD student, Doctoral School “Structure et Dynamique des Systèmes Vivants”, University Paris-Saclay
  • Siddharth Singh Tomar, PhD student, Doctoral School “Structure et Dynamique des Systèmes Vivants”, University Paris-Saclay
  • Héloïse Muller, PhD student, Doctoral School “Structure et Dynamique des Systèmes Vivants”, University Paris-Saclay
  • Jehanne Hilairet
Nicolas Pollet
Team leader

CNRS Researcher
Impact of polyploidization on structure and complexity of the genome
Holobiotic interactions
Preferred models: Amphibians
Aurélie Hua-Van
Team leader

Associate Professor at the University Paris-Saclay (Orsay)
Molecular evolution and evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in genomes
Regulation of transposable elements
Preferred models: Drosophila and other insects
capy[1] Pierre Capy
Professor at the University Paris-Saclay (Orsay);
Transposable element mariner.
Evolution of TE structure.
Invasion dynamics and long-term invasion of TEs.
Preferred models: Drosophila
Jean-Luc Da Lage
Researcher CNRS
Molecular evolution.
Preferred models: Drosophila and other animals
Arnaud Le Rouzic
CNRS Senior Researcher
Theoretical approaches of genome evolution. Dynamics of transposable element. Evolvability of gene networks
Preferred models: any kind of in silico species
Jonathan Filée
CNRS Senior Researcher
Transposable elements, virus, genome evolution
Preferred models: insects, giant viruses
Clément Gilbert
CNRS Researcher
Horizontal transfer and transposable elements
Preferred models: insects, arthropods, and other animals
david Jean David
Emeritus CNRS Research Director.
Phenotypic plasticity
Temperature tolerance
Preferred models: Drosophila
montchamp Catherine Montchamp-Moreau
Emeritus CNRS Research Director
Genetic conflicts, molecular bases and evolutionary history of sex-ratio meiotic distortion, molecular bases of reproductive isolation and adaptation.
Preferred models: Drosophila

Engineers and Technicians

clavereau2
CNRS Assistant engineer

Hologenome in amphibians

ELEGEM_Robillard
CNRS Engineer

Transposable element dynamics in Drosophila melanogaster populations. Experimental evolution. Drosophila microbiome

ogereau
CNRS Engineer
Meiotic distorter. Genetic mapping and polymorphism using DNA markers. Comparative transcriptomics (DNA Chips, real time). Genomics (MinION sequencing)
CNRS Engineer
CNRS technician
CNRS Engineer
Assistant engineer

PhD students

Joseph Guilliet
PhD student, Doctoral School “Structure et Dynamique des Systèmes Vivants”, University Paris-Saclay
Supervisor : Jonathan Filée
Siddharth S. Tomar
PhD student, Doctoral School “Structure et Dynamique des Systèmes Vivants”, University Paris-Saclay
Supervisor : Arnaud Le Rouzic & Aurélie Hua-Van
Héloïse Muller
PhD student, Doctoral School “Structure et Dynamique des Systèmes Vivants”, University Paris-Saclay
Supervisor : Clément Gilbert

Former Members

Former PhD students

Vincent Loiseau
PhD student, Doctoral School “Structure et Dynamique des Systèmes Vivants”, University Paris-Saclay
Study of mechanisms and frequency of virus-mediated horizontal transfers of genetic material between animals.
Supervisor : Clément Gilbert.
PhD obtained on 2020, september 21
Andreas Odorico
Doctoral School “Structure et Dynamique des Systèmes Vivants”, University Paris-Saclay
Evolution of gene regulatory networks: theoretical models vs. empirical data.
Supervisor : Arnaud Le Rouzic
PhD obtained on 2019, december 12
Cécile Courret
Doctoral School “Structure et Dynamique des Systèmes Vivants”, University Paris-Saclay
Molecular bases of the genetic conflict caused by sex chromosome segregation distortion in Drosophila simulans.
Supervisor : Catherine Montchamp-Moreau.
PhD obtained on 2019, december 2
Currently: Post-doctoral position in USA
Maryem Maryem Bouallegue
Doctoral School “Structure et Dynamique des Systèmes Vivants” University Paris-Saclay/University of Tunis. Supervisor : Pierre Capy
Currently: Assistant Professor in Tunisia
photo estelle Estelle Rünneburger
Doctoral School “Structure et Dynamique des Systèmes Vivants” (Paris-sud 11 University)
Evolution des réseaux de gènes. Causes et conséquences de l’évolution du phénotype.
Supervisor : Arnaud Le Rouzic
PhD obtained on 2016
Bastien Bastien Saint-Léandre
Doctoral School “Structure et Dynamique des Systèmes Vivants” (Paris-sud 11 University)
Regulation of transposable elements via the piRNA pathway: Differences between male and female germlines and consequennces on transposition dynamics.
Supervisor : Pierre Capy and Aurélie Hua-Van.
PhD obtained in 2016
Currently: Post-doctoral position
moi-150x150 Quentin Helleu
Doctoral School “Structure et Dynamique des Systèmes Vivants” (Paris-sud 11 University)
Cartographie génétique d’éléments distorteurs chez Drosophila simulans.
Supervisor : Catherine Montchamp-Moreau.
PhD obtained in 2015
Currently: Post-doctoral position
Thibault Scalvenzi
Doctoral School Genes, Genomes, Cells (Paris-sud 11 University).
Supervisor: Nicolas Pollet
Héloïse Bastide
Doctoral School Genes, Genomes, Cells (Paris-sud 11 University).Evolutionary history of sex-ratio segregation distortion in Drosophila simulans”. Population molecular polyporphism, phylogeography.
Supervisor : Catherine Montchamp-Moreau.
Currently : Assistant Professor at University Paris-Saclay
Delphine Legrand
PhD student, Doctoral School Genes, Genomes, Cells (Paris-sud 11 University). .Phylogeography and evolution of drosophila species of the melanogaster subgroup in the Indian Ocean archipelagos. Molecular Polymorphism, phylogeography, molecular basis of adaptation
Currently: CNRS researcher
Lucie Fouvry
Doctoral School Genes, Genomes, Cells (Paris-sud 11 University).Molecular basis and evolution of sex-ratio segregation distortion.
Supervisor : Catherine Montchamp-Moreau.
Currently High school teacher.
Gabriel Da Luz Wallau
Universidade Federal de Santa Maria – BRAZIL
Evolution and horizontal transfer of mariner element in drosophila sequenced genomes.
Supervisor : Pierre Capy/Elgion Loreto (Brazil)
Currently: Researcher in Brazil
Thibaud Boutin
Doctoral School Genes, Genomes, Cells (Paris-sud 11 University).
Long term invasion dynamics of transposable elements, a theoretical approach.
PhD obtained in 2010, september 16
Supervisor: Pierre Capy
Sophie Picot
Doctoral School Genes, Genomes, Cells (Paris-sud 11 University).
Activity of the transposable element mariner in natural populations of Drosophila simulans
Supervisor: Pierre Capy & Aurélie Hua-Van
PhD obtained in 2008

Former Postdocs

Jean-Tristan Brandenbourg, Post-doctorant IDEEV. Analysis of mariner dynamics in D. melanogaster genome.

Pierre Gérard, Post-doctorant sur projet ANR SexChroDrive. Genetic dissection of sex chromosome meiotic drive in Drosophila simulans.
Currently: Assistant Professor at AgroParisTech

Michele Schiffer, CNRS Post-doctorate fellow. Evolutionary systematics of drosophildae. Currently working at The University of Melbourne with Professor Ary Hoffmann. The effect of cold stress on hsp expression in drosophila.

Anna Popkova, CNRS Post-doctorate fellow. Candidate genes for the sex-ratio segregation distortion.

Cécile Campagne, Engineer on the ANR project TRANSBIODIV. Neutral and functional trans-specific biodiversity: theoretical developments and quantification on model organisms. Molecular polymorphism, phylogeography, molecular basis of adaptation.

Michel Cazemajor, researcher on the ANR project SELMULTILOC. Population genetics of the sex-ratio segregation distortion system.

Former Researchers

Jean-Michel Rossignol
Emeritus Professor (University Paris-Saclay).
Sylvie Aulard
Assistant Professor (University Pierre et Marie Curie – P6).
Nicole Chaminade
CNRS Assistant Engineer ).
Jacques-Deric Rouault
CNRS Researcher.