New copies of genes appear in genomes thank to mutational mecanisms. The latter can also delete such copies of genes yielding multigenic families which number might be very dynamic.
We are interested in genes families in relation with:
– Their recruitment in new functions
– Loss of function
– Adaptative processes in which they might be implicated
Two main approaches are developped in relation with this general theme:
– Molecular and functional evolution of transcription factors involved in the development in vertebrates;
– Molecular adaptation of digestive enzymes in metazoares
The team main objective is to understand the emergence and differenciation processes of species by developping integrated approaches: from the biogeographical study to that of genome evolution, transcriptome and proteome.
A few questions among those we are interested in:
– Why some species of drosophila are limited to their original zone, sometimes very small, while others are able to colonize very large and diversificated geographical zones ?
– What are the genetic basis of post-zygotic isolation (sterility/inviability of hybrids)?
– Is he mainly the result of genic expression malfunction?
Researches of the team on bees are structured in three main poles which are in tight interaction: genomics, study of natural populations (phylogeography, ecotypes, fine structure of populations) and behaviour.
Among the main themes are included:
– Establishment of a genetic map of the bee (now containing 1500 markers)
– Caracterization of QTL
– Study of the biodiversity of bee in France and in Europe with the creation of conservatoires.
– Study of the reproductive isolation of an ecotype
– Study of the behavioural adaptation of bees in case of attacks of the hive, in particular defense against hornets
– Study of perception, of learning and olfactive or visual memory phenomenons in bees
These theme share the utilization of molecular markers and genetics.
The evolution of transposable elements activity; identification of host factors (extra-element) and of the element it self (structure and sequence) that can modify this activity; the invasion dynamics of an element following an horizontal transfer or a de novo genesis as well as the general structure evolution of transposable elements are the main themes of this team.
This research allows us to address, amongst other things, the transmission of non genetic factors from one generation to the other by the maternal line. Last, our work on evolution of the general structure of the transposable elements should result in the elaboration of a new classification.
The team addresses evolutive processes from which originate interactions between tropical phytophagous insects, their host plants and their parasitoïds. The team also studies the response of phytophagous insects to global change.
Three research themes will be described:
– Study of the diversity of the interactions between monocotyledon plants, lepidopteran drillers and parasitoïd insects in subsaharian Africa
– Study of the factors causing success of recent invasions of phytophagous insects in tropical zones
– Systematics, phylogenetical hypothesis and patterns of interactions between tropical phytophagous insects and plants
Memory in drosophila is at the heart of the team research. Team members use different types of learning in order to study global cognitive abilities of drosophila. A new theme is the social transmission and its involvment in information cultural transmission.