Jean-Christophe Sandoz




Directeur de Recherche CNRS (PhD, HdR)
Perception, apprentissage et mémoire chez les abeilles – Evolution et plasticité nerveuse

Tél : 01 69 82 37 51
Fax : 01 69 82 37 36
E-mail :


Banière pour page perso JC Sandoz



  • Le double système olfactif des abeilles : fonction d’une spécificité évolutive des hyménoptères
  • Bases génétiques, comportementales et nerveuses des apprentissages appétitifs et aversifs chez les abeilles
  • Évolution des bases nerveuses de la communication sexuelle phéromonale chez les abeilles



  • Prof. M. Giurfa, Dr. J.M. Devaud : Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition Animale, CNRS, Université de Toulouse
  • Prof. C.G. Galizia, Dr. C.J. Kleineidam : Universität Konstanz, Allemagne
  • Prof. W. Gronenberg : University of Arizona, USA
  • Prof. M. Mizunami, Dr. Y. Matsumoto : Hokkaido University, Japon
  • Dr. H. Ai: Fukuoka University, Japon
  • Prof. N. Königer et Dr. G. Königer: Martin-Luther-Universität, Halle, Allemagne
  • Dr. D. Thiéry : INRA SAVE, Bordeaux, France
  • Dr. G. Coureaud, Dr. T. Thomas-Danguin : CSGA, Dijon, France
  • Dr. C. Collet, Dr. Y. Le Conte : INRA Abeille et Environnement, Avignon, France
  • Dr. P. Charnet : CNRS, Montpellier, France



  1. Rousset, M., Collet, C., Cens, T., Bastin, F., Raymond-Delpech, V., Massou, I., Menard, C., Thibaud, J.B., Charreton, M., Vignes, M., Chahine, M., Sandoz, J.C., Charnet, P. (2017). Honeybee locomotion is impaired by Am-CaV3 low voltage-activated Ca2+ channel antagonist. Scientific Reports, 7:41782, 1-10. [pdf].
  2. Couto, A., Lapeyre, B., Thiéry, D., Sandoz, J.C. (2016). The olfactory pathway of the hornet Vespa velutina: new insights into the evolution of the hymenopteran antennal lobe. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 11: 2335-2359. [pdf]
  3. Carcaud, J., Giurfa, M., Sandoz J.C. (2016). Parallel olfactory processing in the honey bee brain: odor learning and generalization under selective lesion of a projection neuron tract. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 9:75, 1-13. [pdf]
  4. Charreton, M., Decourtye, A., Henry, M., Rodet, G., Sandoz, J.C., Charnet, P., Collet, C. (2015). A locomotor deficit induced by sublethal doses of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides in the honeybee Apis mellifera. PLoS ONE, 10(12): e0144879, 1-14. [pdf]
  5. Devaud, J.M., Papouin, T. Carcaud, J., Sandoz, J.C., Grünewald, B., Giurfa, M. (2015). A neural substrate for higher-order learning in an insect: mushroom bodies are necessary for configural discriminations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 112 (43), E5854–E5862. [pdf]
  6. Junca, P., Sandoz, J.C. (2015). Heat perception and aversive learning in honey bees: putative involvement of the thermal/chemical sensor AmHsTRPA. Frontiers in Invertebrate Physiology, 6: 316, 1-15. [pdf]
  7. Cholé, H., Junca, P., Sandoz, J.C. (2015). Appetitive but not aversive olfactory conditioning modifies antennal movements in honey bees. Learning and Memory, 22, 604-616. [pdf]
  8. Carcaud, J., Giurfa, M., Sandoz J.C. (2015). Differential combinatorial coding of pheromones in two olfactory subsystems of the honeybee brain. Journal of Neuroscience, 35, 4157-4167. [pdf]
  9. Roselino, A.C., Hrncir, M., da Cruz Landim, C., Giurfa, M., Sandoz, J.C. (2015). Sexual dimorphism and phenotypic plasticity in the antennal lobe of a stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 523, 1461-1473. [pdf]
  10. Schubert, M., Sandoz, J.C., Galizia, C.G., Giurfa, M. (2015). Odorant dominance in olfactory mixture processing: what makes a strong odorant? Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 282 (1802), 1-10. [pdf]
  11. Cens, T., Rousset, M., Collet, C., Charreton, M., Garnery, L., Le Conte, Y., Chahine, M., Sandoz, J.C., Charnet, P. (2015). Molecular characterization and functional expression of the voltage dependent Ca2+ channels from the honeybee Apis mellifera. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 58, 12-27. [pdf]
  12. Couto, A., Monceau, K., Bonnard, O., Thiéry, D., Sandoz, J.C. (2014). Olfactory attraction of the hornet Vespa velutina to honeybee colony odors and pheromones. PLoS ONE, 9(12): e115943, 1-19. [pdf]
  13. Junca, P., Carcaud, J., Moulin, S., Garnery, L., Sandoz, J.C. (2014). Genotypic influence on aversive conditioning in honeybees, using a novel thermal reinforcement procedure. PLoS ONE, 9(5), e97333, 1-13. [pdf]
  14. Roussel, E., Carcaud, J., Combe, M., Giurfa, M., Sandoz, J.C. (2014). Olfactory coding in the honeybee lateral horn. Current Biology, 24, 561-567. [pdf]
  15. Matsumoto, Y., Sandoz, J.C., Devaud, J.M., Lormant, F., Mizunami, M., Giurfa, M. (2014). Cyclic nucleotide–gated channels, calmodulin, adenylyl cyclase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II are required for late but not early long-term memory formation in the honey bee. Learning and Memory 21, 272-286. [pdf]
  16. Brandstaetter, A.S., Bastin, F., Sandoz, J.C. (2014). Honeybee drones are attracted by groups of consexuals in a walking simulator. Journal of Experimental Biology, 217, 1278-1285. [pdf]
  17. Mota, T., Gronenberg, W., Giurfa, M., Sandoz, J.C. (2013). Chromatic processing in the anterior optic tubercle of the honeybee brain. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 4-16. [pdf]
  18. Lefer, D., Perisse, E., Hourcade, B., Sandoz, J.C., Devaud, J.M. (2013). Two waves of transcription are required for long-term memory in the honeybee. Learning and Memory, 20, 29-33. [pdf]
  19. Matsumoto, Y., Menzel, R., Sandoz, J.C., Giurfa, M. (2012). Revisiting olfactory classical conditioning of the proboscis extension response in honey bees: a step toward standardized procedures. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 211, 159-167.  [pdf]
  20. Carcaud, J., Hill, T., Giurfa, M., Sandoz J.C. (2012). Differential coding by two olfactory subsystems in the honey bee brain. Journal of Neurophysiology, 108, 1106-1121. [pdf]
  21. Galizia, C.G., Franke, T., Menzel, R., Sandoz, J.C. (2012). Optical imaging of concealed brain activity using a gold mirror in honeybees. Journal of Insect Physiology, 58(5), 743-749. [pdf]
  22. Deisig, N, Kropf, J. Vitecek, S., Pevergne, D., Rouyar, A., Sandoz, J.C., Lucas, P., Gadenne, C. Anton, S., Barrozo, R. (2012). Differential interactions of sex pheromone and plant odour in the olfactory pathway of a male moth. PLoS ONE, 7(3), e33159, 1-10. [pdf]
  23. Giurfa, M., Sandoz, J.C. (2012). Invertebrate learning and memory: fifty years of olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response in honeybees. Learning and Memory, 19, 54-66. [pdf]
  24. Arenas, A., Giurfa, M., Sandoz, J.C., Hourcade, B., Devaud, J.M., Farina, W.M. (2012). Early olfactory experience induces structural changes in the primary olfactory centre of an insect brain. European Journal of Neuroscience, 35(5), 682-690. [pdf]
  25. Sandoz, J.C. (2011). Behavioral and neurophysiological study of olfactory perception and learning in the honeybee. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 5: 98, 1-20. [pdf]
  26. Mota, T., Roussel, E., Sandoz, J.C., Giurfa, M. (2011). Visual aversive conditioning of the sting extension reflex in harnessed honeybees. Journal of Experimental Biology, 214: 3577-3587. [pdf]
  27. Mota, T., Yamagata, N., Giurfa, M., Gronenberg, W., Sandoz, J.C. (2011). Neural organization and visual processing in the anterior optic tubercle of the honeybee brain. Journal of Neuroscience, 31: 11443-11456. [pdf]
  28. Mota, T., Giurfa, M., Sandoz, J.C. (2011). Color modulates olfactory learning in honeybees by an occasion setting mechanism. Learning and Memory, 18: 144-155. [pdf]
  29. Hourcade, B., Muenz, T.M., Sandoz J.C., Rössler W., Devaud, J.M. (2010). Long-term memory leads to synaptic reorganization in mushroom bodies: a memory trace in the insect brain?  Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 6461-6465. [pdf]
  30. Roussel, E., Sandoz, J.C., Giurfa, M. (2010) Searching for learning-dependent changes in the antennal lobe: simultaneous recording of neural activity and aversive olfactory learning in honeybees. Frontiers in Behavioural Neuroscience, 4:155, 1-15.  [pdf]
  31. Deisig, N., Giurfa, M., Sandoz, J.C. (2010). Antennal lobe processing increases separability of odor mixture representations in the honeybee. Journal of Neurophysiology, 103, 2185-2194. [pdf]
  32. Dupuy F., Josens R., Giurfa M., Sandoz, J.C. (2010). Calcium imaging in the ant Camponotus fellah reveals a conserved odour-similarity space in insects and mammals. BMC Neuroscience, 11:28, 1-13. [pdf]
  33. Giurfa, M., Fabre, E., Flaven-Pouchon, J., Groll, H., Oberwallner, B., Vergoz, V , Roussel, E., Sandoz, J.C. (2009).Olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex in honeybees: memory dependence on trial number, interstimulus interval, intertrial interval, and protein synthesis. Learning and Memory, 16, 761-765. [pdf]
  34. Hourcade, B., Perisse, E., Devaud, J.M., Sandoz, J.C. (2009). Long-term olfactory memory shapes the primary olfactory centre of an insect brain. Learning and Memory, 16, 607-615. [pdf]
  35. Arenas, A., Giurfa, M., Farina, W., Sandoz, J.C. (2009). Early olfactory experience modifies neural activity in the antennal lobe of a social insect at the adult stage. European Journal of Neuroscience 30, 1498-1508. [pdf]
  36. Bernadou A., Démares F., Couret-Fauvel T., Sandoz J.C., Gauthier M. (2009). Effect of fipronil on side-specific antennal tactile learning in the honeybee. Journal of Insect Physiology, 55, 1099-1106. [pdf]
  37. Perisse, E., Raymond-Delpech, V., Néant, I., Matsumoto, Y., Leclerc, C., Moreau, M., Sandoz, J.C. (2009). Early calcium increase triggers olfactory long-term memory formation in honeybees. BMC Biology, 7:30, 1-9[pdf]
  38. Carcaud, J., Roussel, E., Giurfa, M., Sandoz, J.C. (2009) Odour aversion after olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex in honeybees. Journal of Experimental Biology, 212, 620-626. [pdf]
  39. Roussel, E., Carcaud, J., Sandoz, J.C., Giurfa, M. (2009) Reappraising social insect behavior through aversive responsiveness and learning. PLoS ONE 4, e4197, 1-9. [pdf]
  40. Sandoz, J.C., Deisig, N., de Brito Sanchez, G., Giurfa, M. (2007). Understanding the logics of pheromone processing in the honeybee brain: from labeled-lines to across-fiber patterns. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 1:5, 1-12. [pdf]
  41. Vergoz, V., Roussel, E., Sandoz, J.C., Giurfa, M. (2007). Aversive learning in honeybees revealed by the olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex. PLoS ONE, 3e288, 1-10. [pdf]
  42. Jørgensen, K., Stranden, M., Sandoz, J.C., Menzel, R., Mustaparta, H. (2007). Effects of two bitter substances on olfactory conditioning in the moth Heliothis virescens. Journal of Experimental Biology 210, 2563-2573. [pdf]
  43. Deisig, N., Sandoz, J.C., Giurfa, M., Lachnit, H. (2007). The trial-spacing effect in olfactory patterning discriminations in honeybees. Behavioural Brain Research, 176, 314-322. [pdf]
  44. Sandoz, J.C. (2006). Odour-evoked responses to queen pheromone components and to plant odours using optical imaging in the antennal lobe of the honey bee drone Apis mellifera L. Journal of Experimental Biology, 209, 3587-3598. [pdf]
  45. Deisig, N., Giurfa, M., Lachnit, H., Sandoz, J.C. (2006). Neural representation of olfactory mixtures in the honeybee antennal lobe. European Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 1161-1174. [pdf]
  46. Dupuy, F., Sandoz, J.C., Giurfa, M., Josens, R. (2006). Individual learning in Camponotus ants. Animal Behaviour, 72, 1081-1091. [pdf]
  47. Guerrieri, F., Schubert, M., Sandoz, J.C., Giurfa, M. (2005). Generalisation and perceptual similarity among odours in the honeybee, PLoS Biology, 3, e60, 1-15.  [pdf]
  48. Komischke, B., Sandoz, J.C., Malun, D., Giurfa, M. (2005). Partial unilateral lesions of the mushroom bodies affect olfactory learning in honeybees Apis mellifera L. European Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 477-485. [pdf]
  49. Châline, N., Sandoz, J.C., Jones, G.R., Martin, S.J., Ratnieks, F.L.W. (2005). Learning and discrimination of individual cuticular hydrocarbons by honey bees (Apis mellifera). Chemical senses, 30, 1-9. [pdf]
  50. Skiri, H.T., Stranden, M., Sandoz, J.C., Menzel, R., Mustaparta, H. (2005). Associative learning of plant odorants activating the same or different receptor neurons in the moth Heliothis virescens Journal of Experimental Biology, 208, 787-796. [pdf]
  51. Cook, S.M., Sandoz, J.C., Martin, A.P., Murray, D.A., Poppy, G.M., Williams, I.H. (2005). Could pollen odours play a role in the foraging behaviour of the honeybee (Apis mellifera)?  Physiological Entomology, 30, 164-174. [pdf]
  52. Sandoz, J.C., Pham-Delègue, M.H. (2004) Spontaneous recovery after extinction of the conditioned proboscis extension response in the honey bee. Learning and Memory, 11, 586-597. [pdf]
  53. Sandoz, J.C., Galizia, C.G., Menzel, R. (2003) Side-specific olfactory conditioning leads to more specific odor representation between sides but not within sides in the honeybee antennal lobes. Neuroscience, 120, 1137-1148.  [pdf]
  54. Komischke, B., Sandoz, J.C., Giurfa, M., Lachnit, H. (2003) Non-elemental processing in olfactory discrimination tasks needs bilateral input in honeybees. Behavioral Brain Research, 145, 135-143. [pdf]
  55. Kaiser L., Perez-Maluf, R., Sandoz, J.C., Pham-Delègue, M.H. (2003) Dynamics of odor learning involved in a host-searching behavior by a Hymenopterous parasitoid. Animal Behaviour, 66, 1077-84.  [pdf]
  56. Deisig, N., Lachnit, H., Sandoz, J.C., Lober, K., Giurfa, M. (2003) A modified version of the unique cue theory accounts for olfactory compound processing in honeybees. Learning & Memory, 10, 199-208. [pdf]
  57. Bonod, I., Sandoz, J.C., Loublier, Y., Pham-Delègue, M.H. (2003) Learning and discrimination of honey odours by the honey bee. Apidologie 34, 147-159. [pdf]
  58. Sandoz, J.C., Hammer, M., Menzel, R. (2002) Side-specificity of olfactory learning in the honey bee: US input side. Learning & Memory, 9337-348. [pdf]
  59. Sandoz, J.C., Menzel, R. (2001) Side-specificity of olfactory learning in the honey bee: generalisation between odours and sidesLearning & Memory, 8, 286-294. [pdf]
  60. Sandoz, J.C., Pham-Delègue, M.H., Renou, M., Wadhams, L.J. (2001) Asymmetrical generalisation between pheromonal and floral odours in appetitive olfactory conditioning of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 187, 559-568. [pdf]
  61. Sandoz, J.C., Laloi, D., Odoux, J.F., Pham-Delègue, M. H. (2000) Transfer of an olfactory information in different contexts in the honey bee: compared efficiency of classical conditioning and early exposure. Animal Behaviour, 59, 1025-1034. [pdf]
  62. Laloi, D., Sandoz, J.C., Picard-Nizou, A.L., Marchesi, A., Pouvreau, A., Taséi, J.N., Poppy, G., Pham-Delègue, M.H. (1999). Olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension in bumble bees, Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 90, 123-129.  [pdf]
  63. Le Métayer, M., Marion-Poll, F., Sandoz, J.C., Pham-Delègue, M.H., Blight, M.M., Wadhams, L.J., Masson, C., Woodcock, C.M. (1997). Effect of conditioning on discrimination of oilseed rape volatiles by the honeybee: use of a gas chromatography-proboscis extension behavioural assay. Chemical Senses, 22, 391-398. [pdf]
  64. Pham-Delègue, M.H., Blight, M.M., Kerguelen, V., Le Métayer, M., Marion-Poll, F., Sandoz, J.C., Wadhams, L.J. (1997). Discrimination of oilseed rape volatiles by the honeybee: combined chemical and biological approaches. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 83, 87-92. [pdf]
  65. Sandoz, J.C., Roger, B., Pham-Delègue, M.H. (1995). Olfactory learning and memory in the honeybee: comparison of different classical conditioning procedures of the proboscis extension responseComptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris, série III, 318, 749-755. [pdf]