Archives

Hubert, Marteau

Email: marteau@egce.cnrs-gif.fr

En charge des activités suivantes:

Apiculteur:
En charge du suivi d’une dizaine de colonies sur le site de Gif-sur-Yvette. En lien avec l’équipe de Jean-Christophe Sandoz, production de reines, mâles et ouvrières.
En lien avec Lionel Garnery, suivi des ruchers du CANIF (Cernay, Bullion, Rochefort).
Extraction du miel et entretien du matériel ( ruches et miellerie).


Éleveur-soigneur sésamies:
Avec l’équipe de Laure Kaiser-Arnauld, participation au suivi d’élevage des sésamies.

Bonoukpoé, Sokame

Postdoctoral consultant at ICIPE in Data Management, Modelling and Geoinformation Unit

Email: bsokame@icipe.org

Work

Main responsibility: Implement a project on: “Measuring and modelling crop yield losses due to insect pests under a warming climate”

Specifically:

  • Develop a system dynamics model of the population dynamics of insect pest in cropping agroecosystems,  
  • Design and conduct experiments on temperature and CO2-dependent potential of insect pest to damage the host plant into phytotron,
  • Design and conduct experiments on damage-dependent yield losses into greenhouse,
  • Develop models with a process-based dynamic modelling (insect pest phenology and crop models),
  • Test, evaluate, and analyse the models for future predictions:
    • formulate and fit the damage functions representing the conversion of insect injury into yield loss,
    • formulate and fit the loss function converting injury into economic losses,
    • evaluate the developed model by comparing simulation outputs against observed datasets,
    • estimate the applicability of the model to new environmental conditions through comparison of the behaviour to key factors and processes.

Other responsibilities:

  • Develop methodological approach for predicting and mapping the phenological adaptation of tropical cereal crops (maize) using multi-environment trials,
  • Train on system dynamics modelling,
  • Supervise/assist under- and postgraduate students and technicians.

Publications

Sokame, B.M., Ntiri, E., Ahuya, P., Torto, B., Le Ru, B.P., Kilalo, D.C., Juma, G., Calatayud, P.-A. (2019).  Caterpillar-induced plant volatiles attract conspecific and heterospecific adults for oviposition within a community of lepidopteran stem borers on maize plants. Chemoecology, 29, 89-101.

Sokame, B.M., Rebaudo, F., Musyoka, B., Obonyo, J., Mailafiya, D.M., Le Ru, B.P., Kilalo, D.C., Juma, G., Calatayud, P.-A. (2019). Carry-over niches for lepidopteran maize stemborers and associated parasitoids during non-cropping season. Insects, 10, 191, doi:10.3390/insects10070191.

Sokame B.M., Rebaudo F., Malusi P., Subramanian S., Killo D.C., Juma G., Calatayud P.-A. (2020). Influence of Temperature on the Interaction for Resource Utilization between Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and a Community of Lepidopteran Maize Stemborers Larvae. Insects, 11, 73. doi:10.3390/insects11020073.

Sokame B.M., Subramanian S., Kilalo D.C., Juma G., Calatayud P.-A. (2020). Larval dispersal of the invasive fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, the exotic stemborer Chilo partellus, and indigenous maize stemborers in Africa. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 168, 322–331.

Sokame B.M., Obonyo J., Sammy E.M., Mohamed S.A.,Subramanian S., Kilalo D.C., Juma G., Calatayud P.-A. (2020). Impact of the exotic fall armyworm on larval parasitoids associated with the lepidopteran maize stemborers in Kenya. BioControl, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10526-020-10059-2

Sokame B.M., Tonnang H.E.Z., Subramanian S., Bruce A.Y., Dubois T., Ekesi S., Calatayud P.-A. 2021. A system dynamic model for pests and natural enemies interactions. Scientific Reports, 11, 1401, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79553-y

Ovide,Nuambote`

PhD Student

Email: ynuambote@gmail.com

Title of the PhD: Mechanisms of resistance in the African maize germplasm to the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)

Abstract: Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third largest crop in the world after rice and wheat. In Africa, it is the most important food crop in terms of area harvested and alone provides more than 30% of the total calories of the human population in sub-Saharan Africa. The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a pest of maize native to the Americas was first reported in West Africa in 2016, is severely threatening food security in sub-Saharan Africa through the loss of tens of millions of tons of maize production each year according to FAO’s 2018 estimates. In the African context where the majority of maize producers are smallholder farmers with limited access to knowledge and adequate inputs to properly manage this new pest, the use of resistant varieties of the host, obtained either through conventional plant breeding methods or through silica induction (a known inducer of resistance in Grasses against pests), is therefore one of the most effective means of control, compatible with other integrated pest management strategies. The first step is to check whether an increase in the silica content of maize disrupts the development of S. frugiperda larvae. While silica induces a significant increase in stem diameter and height of potted maize plants, it has no influence on the development and mortality of S. frugiperda, ruling out the use of silica in maize resistance to this pest. Some resistant maize varieties have been bred and exist in the Americas against S. frugiperda but none are currently available as they are not adapted to the African continent. The other main objective of this thesis is therefore to develop a strategy to control S. frugiperda in Africa by using resistant varieties derived from African maize germplasm. The first results of the work on breeding and genetic improvement of (sub)tropical maize varieties against S. frugiperda, initiated by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center in Kenya (CIMMYT) between 2018 and 2019, indicate that five maize lines out of 1303 genotypes tested in greenhouses under artificial infestation have appreciable levels of resistance to S. frugiperda based on leaf and ear damage. After obtaining hybrids from these lines that are potentially resistant to S. frugiperda, this research is divided into three steps: 1) identify the mechanisms of S. frugiperda resistance in lines and hybrids selected for their resistance, 2) check whether these resistant genotypes are avoided by S. frugiperda females for oviposition, 3) and finally identify the chemical compounds responsible for resistance.

Camilo, Patarroyo

Doctorant

Email: ca.patarroyo960@uniandes.edu.co

Titre de la thèse (en anglais): Environmental demogenetics of potato late blight in Colombia

Résumé (en anglais): The potato late blight is known for its part in the Irish potato famine during the 19th century. This disease has been extensively studied ever since. However, despite being one of the most well studied plant diseases in the world it remains one of the biggest threats to global food security. The late blight is caused by the Oomycete Phytophthora infestans. This is an hemi-biotrophic pathogen that infects the economically important crops potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).
In Colombia due to the prevalence of this disease and the extended use of susceptible potato cultivars, the main control strategy against this disease is the continuous application of fungicides. This constitutes a major problem because the repeated exposure of P. infestans to these fungicides results in the development of acquired resistance, and the effects on the health of the growers and the increased costs of continuously using fungicides during the growth cycle of the crop.
One way of reducing the continuous use of fungicides that has been practiced with some degree of success is the use of simulation and epidemiological models. These models project the proliferation of P. infestans based on environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity. This allows the growers to optimize the use of fungicides by applying them exclusively during the most favorable periods for the late blight development instead of a continuous use.
These models however have a few limitations. First, these do not consider the spatial configuration beyond each individual field. This could be an important addition due to the possibility of P. infestans dispersal between fields. Second, these disregard other possible management strategies and conditions that could be informative for the projection of late blight. And third, these are deterministic mechanistic models which have required decades of study to find the response of P. infestans to a variety of environmental conditions. Even though there have been adaptations of these models to tropical conditions, these models have a limited applicability outside the US because of the differences in environmental conditions and the responses of the different lineages present elsewhere.
Our main goal in this work is to develop an integrative model that considers several sources of information including environmental, epidemiological, genetic and spatial within a Bayesian learning framework. The idea is to start with a simple model that can be calibrated through this approach using collected field data. This would allow us to develop both a model for potato late blight in Colombia which would be continually calibrated with newly collected information, and a generic framework that can be used to develop models for lesser known plant pathogens that could be calibrated relying heavily on the collected field data and not previous mechanistic studies.

Taiadjana, Fortuna

Research engineer / postdoc IRD, DEEIT team

PhD, 2013, University of Wageningen, The Netherlands

Tel. +33 (0)1 69 82 37 48

taiadjana.fortuna[at]egce.cnrs-gif.fr  //  taiadjana.marquesfortuna[at]ird.fr

Research interests

I’m an ecologist interested on the interactions between plants and their associated insect communities (herbivores, parasitoids etc.) and pathogens.

During my PhD, I focused on PLANT-INSECT interactions on the context of PLANT INVASION in order to understand some of the key factors underlying the invasive ability of certain plant species. During my postdoc, I focused on PLANT-FUNGI interactions to study multiple infections and within-host competition of the anther-smut fungi, responsible for castrating its host.

One of my research interests relates to insect behaviour and to the mechanisms underlying host selection and acceptation by Lepidoptera (e.g. moths and butterflies) and Hymenoptera parasitic wasps. During my formation, I have developed a taste for CHEMICAL ECOLOGY, particularly the cues (e.g. volatiles, contact cues) used by insects during their host searching behaviour. This knowledge is essential to evaluate the efficiency of weed and crop pest BIOLOGICAL CONTROL programs.

Now working in DEEIT team, I am conducting the risk assessment for non-target species of a stemborer parasitoid to evaluate the feasibility of using the parasitoid as a new biological control agent against the Mediterranean corn borer (ANR project COTEBIO).

Publications

[10] Fortuna TM, Namias A, Snirc A, Branca A, Hood ME, Raquin C, Shykoff JA & Giraud T (2018) Multiple infections, relatedness and virulence in the anther-smut fungus castrating Saponaria plants. Molecular Ecology, 27(23): 4947-4959.

[9] Fortuna TM, Snirc A, Badouin H, Gouzy J, Siguenza S, Le Prieur S & Giraud T (2016) Polymorphic microsatellite markers for the tetrapolar anther-smut fungus Microbotryum saponariae based on genome sequencing. PLoS One 11(11): e0165656.

[8] Fortuna TM, Eckert S, Harvey JA, Vet LEM, Müller C, Gols R (2014). Variation in plant defences among populations of a range-expanding plant: consequences for trophic interactions. New Phytologist 204(4): 989-999.

[7] van Geem M, Gols R, van Dam NM, van der Putten WH, Fortuna T & Harvey JA (2013). The importance of aboveground-belowground interactions on the evolution and maintenance of variation in plant defence traits. Frontiers in Plant Science 4(431): 1-13.

[6] Fortuna TM, Woelke JB, Hordijk CA, Jansen JJ, van Dam NM, Vet LEM & Harvey JA (2013). A tritrophic approach to the preference-performance hypothesis involving an exotic and a native plant. Biological Invasions 15(11): 2387-2401.

[5] Fortuna TM, Harvey JA & Vet LEM (2012). Effects of an invasive plant on the performance of two parasitoids with different host exploitation strategies. Biological Control 62(3): 213-220.

[4] Harvey JA & Fortuna TM (2012) Chemical and structural effects of invasive plants on herbivore–parasitoid/predator interactions in native communities. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 144(1): 14-26.

[3] Franco JC, Fortuna T, Silva EB, Suma P, Russo A, Zada A & Mendel Z (2011) Vine mealybug sex pheromone increases citrus mealybug parasitism by Anagyrus sp. near pseudococci (Girault). Biological Control 58(3): 230-238.

[2] Harvey JA, Biere A, Fortuna T, Vet LEM, Engelkes T, Morriën E, Gols R, Verhoeven Koen, Vogel H, Macel M, Heidel-Fischer HM, Schramm K & Putten WH (2010). Ecological fits, misfits and lotteries involving insect herbivores on the invasive plant, Bunias orientalis. Biological Invasions 12(9): 3045–3059.

[1] Bezemer TM, Harvey JA, Kamp AFD, Wagenaar R, Gols R, Kostenko O, Fortuna T, Engelkes T, Vet LEM, Putten WH & Soler R (2010). Behaviour of male and female parasitoids in the field: influence of host density, patch size and habitat complexity. Ecological Entomology 35(3): 341–351.

Other publications

[5] Fortuna TM, Franco JC & Rebelo MT (2015) Morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla in a mealybug parasitoid, Anagyrus sp. near pseudococci (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae). Microscopie and Microanalysis 21 (S6): 8-9.

[4] Fortuna TM (2014) Multitrophic Interactions on a Range-expanding Plant Species. Entomologische Berinchten 74 (3): 4-5.

[3] Fortuna TM (2013) Multitrophic Interactions on a Range-expanding Plant Species. (PhD thesis, University of Wageningen).

[2] Silva EB, Fortuna T, Franco JC, Campos L, Branco M, Zada A & Mendel Z (2009) Kairomonal response of a parasitic wasp to the sex pheromone of the vineyard mealybug. IOBC wrps Bulletin 41: 79-82.

[1] Franco JC, Fortuna T, Silva EB, Suma P, Russo A, Campos L, Branco M, Zada A & Mendel Z (2008) May vine mealybug sex pheromones improve the biological control of the citrus mealybug? IOBC wprs Bulletin 38: 94-98.